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Variability (HRV),
Heartbeats, and
Autonomic Nervous
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ANSWatch customers
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individuals) for
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in-depth discussions at  
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Do you have     
- are you monitoring   
- are you taking
prescription drugs?
- are you aware of drug
side effects on ANS?
- self-improvement tips
Read more......
Feeling dizzy      
or even fainted?
- are you low in blood
pressure or heart rate?
- are you taking
prescription drugs?
- You may experience
Baroreflex failure
Read more......
Irregular heartbeats?
- often noticing abnormal
heartbeats (missing,
uneven, or super-fast)?
- Yo might have cardiac
- Most sudden death
events are preceded by
irregular heartbeats
Read more......
Mitral Valve Prolapse?
- Mitral valve is the
bicuspid valve between left
atrium and ventricle
- If mitral valve is not
closed properly (called
mitral valve prolapse
MVP), the blood may
backflow during pumping
- there is a strong
connection between panic
attackes and MVP
- How to detect it?
Read more......
Am I having   
- autonomic nervous
system works to fine tune
body conditions depending
on physiological needs
- ANS consists of two
branches: sympathetic and
- do you have balanced
- what are the symptoms of
Read more......
What is Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) and
Glimpse of Facts on MVP


          Figure 1

  • The mitral valve controls the flow of blood between the two chambers on the left side of the
    heart. The two chambers are the left atrium and the left ventricle
  • Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a condition in which the mitral valve doesn't work properly. The
    flaps of the valve are "floppy" and don't close tightly.
  • MVP in general doesn't cause any problems. Rarely, blood can leak the wrong way through the
    floppy valve, which may cause shortness of breath, palpitations (strong or rapid heartbeats),
    chest pain, and other symptoms.
  • The mitral valve allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle, but not back the
    other way (see Figure 1). (The heart also has a right atrium and ventricle, separated by the
    tricuspid (tri-CUSS-pid) valve.)
  • In MVP, when the left ventricle contracts, one or both flaps of the mitral valve flop or bulge back
    (prolapse) into the left atrium. This can prevent the valve from forming a tight seal.
  • As a result, blood may flow backward from the ventricle into the atrium. The backflow of blood
    is called regurgitation.
  • Backflow doesn't occur in all cases of MVP. In fact, most people who have MVP don't have
    backflow and never have any symptoms or complications. In these people, even though the
    valve flaps prolapse, the valve still can form a tight seal.
  • When backflow does occur, it can cause symptoms and complications such as shortness of
    breath, arrhythmias (ah-RITH-me-ahs), or chest pain.
  • Backflow can get worse over time. It can lead to changes in the heart's size and higher
    pressures in the left atrium and lungs. Backflow also increases the risk for heart valve infections
  • Medicines can treat troublesome MVP symptoms and prevent complications. Some people will
    need surgery to repair or replace their mitral valves.
  • Early studies estimated a prevalence of 38% among healthy teenagers; with improved
    echocardiographic techniques and clear diagnostic criteria, the true prevalence of MVP is
    estimated at 2-3% of the population.[Ref: Hayek E, Gring CN, Griffin BP (2005). "Mitral valve
    prolapse". Lancet 365 (9458): 507–18. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17869-6. PMID 15705461]
MVP Treatment

  • Most people who have MVP have no symptoms or medical problems and don't need treatment.
    These people are able to lead normal, active lives; they may not even know they have the
  • A small number of people who have MVP may need medicines to relieve their symptoms. Very
    few people who have MVP need heart valve surgery to repair their mitral valves.
  • In our clinical experience, exercise training coupled with good life styles may improve MVP
    (reducing the frequency and the extent of poor closure) as monitored by ANSWatch Wrist
MVP and Panic Attacks

  • The American Heart Association recently formally announced it recognized a connection
    between panic attacks and Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP), although it did not understand of the
    connection. But researchers into this problem understand the connection is actually a
    dysfunction in the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
  • The condition is most common in women, although men are also affected. With MVP,
    symptoms do not begin before the early teenage years (approximately age 14 in girls and 15 in
    boys), but adults of any age may be affected. MVP tends to run in families, so those with blood
    relatives with MVP have a greater chance of also having the condition. The mitral valve prolapse
    syndrome is sometimes called dysautonomia or MVP SYNDROME/DYSAUTONOMIA.
  • The symptoms can include: Mitral Valve Prolapse (in 2/3 of patients); Anxiety and/or panic
    attacks; Depression and/or mood swings; Chest discomfort or pain; Palpitations or feelings of
    skipped heart beats or flip-flops; Dizziness and/or unsteadiness; Almost passing out
    (presyncope) or passing out (syncope); Pallor or redness of extremities; Malaise, a general
    sense of being ill; Weakness, fatigue and/or loss of stamina; Inability to tolerate heat or sun for
    long; Gastrointestinal problems; Headaches or migraines; Numbness and/or tingling in the
Can ANSWatch detect MVP?

  • During the closure of the mitral valve, thickened and prolapsed leaflets may cause blood flow
    turbulence that is detectable in the radial arterial waveforms
  • A young healthy volunteer's radial arterial waveforms acquired by ANSWatch (Pro Model) are
    presented in Figure 2a below. Note that there are three characteristic peaks: the first peak
    corresponds to the systolic pressure where the blood flow is fastest out of the left ventricle in
    the cycle; the second peak (the dicrotic notch) occurs right after the closure of the aortic valve;
    the small third peak preceding the next pulse is due to the closure of the miral valve.  In a
    normal subject, the third peak is a single solid peak (or sometimes undetectable when the heart
    rate is high)
  • The radial arterial waveforms of a young lady with MVP (diagnosed positively by
    echocardiography) are displayed in Figure 2b below.  Note that there existed several small
    peaks after the dicrotic notch and preceding the next pulse. These small peaks were indications
    that one or two of the mitral flaps moved abnormally during closure.  In Figure 2c, the  
    echocardiography plot obtained from a MVP patient exhibits a late systole click and "murmur".  
    Figure 2d presents the pulsw waveform plot from another lady patient (25 years-old) with MVP.
Figure 2a: Radial arterial waveforms from a
young healthy volunteer
Figure 2b: Radial arterial waveforms from a
lady patient with MVP
Figure 2c: Echocardiography showing a late
systolic click and murmur produced by MVP
Figure 2d: Radial arterial waveforms from a
25 yeards-old lady patient with MVP